Here is an extract from page 26, section 'Babbage, Computers, Artificial Intelligence ...' in 'Introduction: A Musico-Logical Offering' of the book Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid written by Douglas R. Hofstadter:

But essential abilities for intelligence are certainly:
  1. to respond to situations very flexibly;
  2. to take advantage of fortuitous circumstances;
  3. to make sense out of ambiguous or contradictory messages;
  4. to recognize the relative importance of different elements of a situation;
  5. to find similarities between situations despite differences which may separate them;
  6. to draw distinctions between situations despite similarities which may link them;
  7. to synthesize new concepts by taking old concepts and putting them together in new ways;
  8. to come up with ideas which are novel.
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